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Hydrogen Isotopes

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Different distributions of chemical quarks are used to model different Rydberg numbers for hydrogen isotopes and also hydrogenic atoms.


Comparisons are made with experimental observations

Peter J. Mohr, Barry N. Taylor, and David B. Newell, CODATA Physical Constants: 2010, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 2012.

Kramida, A., Ralchenko, Yu., Reader, J., and NIST ASD Team (2015). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version. 5.3). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Wiese, W. L.; Fuhr, J. R. (2009). Accurate Atomic Transition Probabilities for Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 38 (3): 565.

Linstrom, P.J. and W.G. Mallard, Editors; Hydrogen Atom – Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, USA.

Norman F. Ramsey, Experiments with Trapped Hydrogen Atoms and Neutrons. Journal of Hyperfine Interactions, Volume 81 (1993), pages 97–103.

Rydberg Number

A conventional statement of the Rydberg formula

E_{\mathsf{Bohr}} = hc \mathcal{R}_{\mathbf{H}} \left( \dfrac{1}{{\rm{n}}_{f}^{2}} - \dfrac{1}{{\rm{n}}_{i}^{2}} \right)

where \mathcal{R}_{\mathbf{H}} is the Rydberg number for hydrogen.

So the models work by requiring that

hc \mathcal{R}_{\mathbf{H}} =  2 \left| \, H_{chem}^{\mathcal{A}}  \right|

This condition is obtained from the distribution of electrochemical quarks, which in the case of atomic hydrogen, is that there are eight quarks of each type. Other conditions and distributions are used to represent observations of atomic bonds, isotopes and hydrogenic atoms.

The Rydberg number for hydrogen is given1Reduced mass: Eisberg and Resnick, page 105. by

\mathcal{R}_{\mathrm{H}} \equiv  \mathcal{R}_{\infty} \dfrac{m_{\mathsf{p}}}{m_{\mathsf{p}} + m_{\mathsf{e}}}

1Reduced mass: Eisberg and Resnick, page 105.