Let particle P be described by an ordered chain of events written as

that is repetitive so that may also be written as

where each orbital cycle is composed of sub-orbital events

If P contains just a few quarks then the time of occurrence may not be a useful parameter for describing these events because Planck’s postulate is plausibly justified on a statistical basis. So we also discuss the order of events using a **phase angle** defined by

where is arbitrary and is the helicity of P. The ground-states and many excited-states of atoms have spin-down orientations, then . Also, the change in during one sub-orbital event is called the **phase angle increment**. It is defined by , so usually

EthnoPhysics uses a finite categorical scheme of binary distinctions to describe sensation. So the number of sub-orbital events may be large but not infinite. This requirement can be relaxed later to make a continuous approximation, thereby allowing the use of calculus. But in principle is finite and accordingly changes in may be small but not infinitesimal. For isolated particles the increment in the phase angle does not vary and so there is an equipartition of between sub-orbital events regardless of their quark content.