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Third Law of Motion

The third law of motion from Sir Isaac Newton is about a balance between the forces of cause and effect. It has been translated1Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, page 417. Translated by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. University of California Press, 1999. as

An icon indicating a quotation.To any action there is always an opposite and equal reaction; in other words, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and always opposite in direction.

β€” Sir Isaac Newton

This has something in common with the ancient Indian idea of karma a key concept in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist, Tao, Shinto and Sikh philosophies. It is also similar to Western aphorisms like, ‘what goes around comes around’. And we suppose that Newton himself was well aware of passages in the Jewish and Christian texts about reaping and sowing. But Newton’s third law is much more than just a vague claim of cosmic balance. It has a mathematically precise expression in terms of two compound atoms called \mathbf{A} and \mathbf{B} that have an interaction with each other by exchanging another particle called \mathsf{X}. The interaction begins when \mathbf{A} emits \mathsf{X} which causes the effect of \sf{X} being absorbed into \mathbf{B} after an elapsed time of \Delta t. The forces on \mathbf{A} and \mathbf{B} due to this interaction are found by substituting their changes of momentum \Delta \overline{p} discussed earlier into the definition of force to obtain

\overline{F}^{\mathbf{A}} \equiv \dfrac{\; \Delta \overline{p}^{\mathbf{A}}}{\Delta t} = \dfrac{- \overline{p}^{\mathsf{X}}}{\Delta t}

and

\overline{F}^{\mathbf{B}} \equiv \dfrac{\; \Delta \overline{p}^{\mathbf{B}}}{\Delta t} =   \dfrac{\; \overline{p}^{\mathsf{X}}}{\Delta t}

so that

\overline{F}^{\mathbf{A}} = - \, \overline{F}^{\mathbf{B}}

The force of the cause is of equal size and in the opposite direction to the force of the effect. These quantities are measurable, so Newton’s assertion can be scientifically tested in our laboratories. And for EthnoPhysics, all the foregoing terms are well defined in terms of sensation.

Baby Carrier Panel, Bahau people. Borneo 20th century, 35 x 28 cm. From the Teo Family collection, Kuching. Photograph by D Dunlop.
References
1Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, page 417. Translated by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. University of California Press, 1999.