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Quark Traits

Quark traits are key details that regulate how quarks are combined to form larger particles. Recall that thermodynamic quarks have been mathematically defined by the union of a thermodynamic seed with a conjugate seed. There are 10 different thermodynamic seeds, so there are 10 different quark-types. Each type includes an ordinary-quark and an anti-quark, for a total of 20 particles. Quarks are described by two numbers, their internal energy  U, and a temperature  T, as shown in the accompanying table.

Thermodynamic Quarks


Quark IndexInternal EnergyTemperature


\overline {\mathsf{z}}


U (MeV)

T (℃)

 \mathsf{u} \overline {\mathsf{u}}1243-815
 \mathsf{d} \overline {\mathsf{d}}20-1,034
 \mathsf{e} \overline {\mathsf{e}}3-32676
 \mathsf{g} \overline {\mathsf{g}}4298-1,185
 \mathsf{m} \overline {\mathsf{m}}51,186-6,401
 \mathsf{a} \overline {\mathsf{a}}636,529
 \mathsf{t} \overline {\mathsf{t}}7150222
 \mathsf{b} \overline {\mathsf{b}}8-850
 \mathsf{s} \overline {\mathsf{s}}950-252
 \mathsf{c} \overline {\mathsf{c}}10-53100

This list of quark characteristics summarizes an extended analysis of sensation aimed at making more complete and comprehensive descriptions. For EthnoPhysics, the energy of a particle is a number that mathematically represents the size of an underlying sensation. The relationship is articulated using a calorimetric thought experiment to define specific energy. We also consider that the temperature is an account of the urgency of any feelings objectified in a particle. The connection is made by discussing a thermometric thought experiment to define vis viva.

Analysis is simplified with a hypothesis about conjugate symmetry. That is, we assume that ordinary-quarks and anti-quarks are much the same as each other. And laboratory experiments are introduced to move away from thought experiments toward more collective perceptions. The audibility is defined to compare and contrast different classes of sensation. And, finally, these differences are used to make quantitative statements about internal energy and temperature. The large negative temperatures noted in the table above are later associated with robust stability.

Thermodynamic quark characteristics are thus established. So next we assess how they are manifest in observable particles based on the idea that quarks are conserved.

Thermodynamic quark characteristics are important details about how particles fit together, somewhat like the elaborate and subtle design of this Sumatran tampan.
Tampan, Paminggir people. Sumatra 19th century, 69 x 70 cm. From the library of Darwin Sjamsudin, Jakarta. Photograph by D Dunlop.