Internal energy extends the notion of specific energy so that the size of a particle can be established from calibrated laboratory experiments. Consider a generic particle P characterized by some repetitive chain of events noted as
where each orbital cycle is a bundle of seeds
The number is called the internal energy of P. The internal energy may be positive, negative or zero depending on a particle’s composition and some choice for the calorimetric reference sensation.
To establish numerical values for the internal energy consider a down-quark defined by the pair of seeds . Applying the foregoing definition of internal energy gives . If a down-seed has just about the same specific energy as an ordinary conjugate-seed, then
|1||U||242 926 032|
|2||D||-0||000 027 2|
|3||E||-31 966 250|
|4||G||298 359 162|
|5||M||1 185 795 604|
|6||A||3 122 059|
|7||T||149 556 239|
|8||B||-85 011 771|
|9||S||50 119 218|
|10||C||-53 062 870|
Let us require experimental practice to obtain this this consistently; for example, by using the down quark as a reference particle to set the null value when measuring internal energy. Down quarks are objectified from black sensations, so this requirement could be interpreted as closing any shutters and using insulation so that a measuring instrument is completely isolated and in the dark when indicating zero. The other numbers shown in the accompanying table are obtained by juggling quark coefficients with observations of molecular bond strength and nuclear particle mass. The conventional unit used for reporting these measurements is the electronvolt abbreviated as (eV). Results are presented without the use of scientific notation to graphically emphasize how quark energies range over about fifteen orders of magnitude. The structure of this huge variation governs the subsequent division of analysis into nuclear, atomic and ‘dark’ regimes.
By the foregoing definition, the internal energy for these particles is given by
The hypothesis of conjugate symmetry asserts that . Then both quarks have the same internal energy and we can use the quark index to refer to either quark
However, we cannot always assume conjugate symmetry. Then we use a conjugate difference and a conjugate mean to describe the relationship between quarks and anti-quarks.
Internal Energy is Conserved
Consider that each each orbital cycle of P may also be described as a bundle of quarks
Each quark is composed from a pair of seeds . And from the foregoing definition of internal energy
Then changing the sum over seeds, to a sum over quarks, gives
The internal energy of a compound quark is just the sum its parts. But quarks are conserved. And the internal energy of each quark has a fixed value. So whenever some generic compound quarks and interact, if
And so internal energy is conserved. This also implies that any particle has the same internal energy as its anti-particle. Because If there is conjugate symmetry, then swapping quarks doesn’t change the total energy, so