Temperature extends the notion of vis viva so that the urgency of objectified feelings can be established from calibrated laboratory experiments. Consider a generic particle P characterized by some repetitive chain of events noted as
where each orbital cycle is a bundle of seeds
where is Boltzmann’s constant. The number is called the temperature of P. This temperature may be positive, negative or zero depending on the particle’s composition and the choice of a thermometric reference sensation.
To establish numerical values start with the bottom-quark defined by the pair of seeds . Applying the foregoing definition of temperature gives . If a bottom-seed has the same vis viva as a conjugate-seed, then
Consider experimental practice to obtain this consistently; for example, by using bottom quarks as a reference to calibrate the measurement of temperature. This would depend on what we mean by touching ice because this feeling was used to specify freezing reference sensations and objectified to define bottom seeds. But there are many different kinds of ice and to make reliable measurements we therefore need to specify the reference sensation more precisely. So, by “touching ice” we mean touching a slushy mix of frozen solid water and clean pure liquid water in an open container near sea level on Earth. This is an utterly conventional way of specifying zero on the Celsius temperature scale. So we note such a convention by writing as the Celsius temperature.
We have also defined the charmed quarks using the reference sensation of touching steam. And since there are different kinds of steam we also need to specify this sensation more carefully. So, by “touching steam” we mean touching the vapors rising from an open container of pure boiling water near sea level on Earth. This is a very traditional way of defining 100 . Charmed quarks are objectified from this sensation, so we require that their temperature is 100 . The other temperatures listed in the accompanying table are obtained by juggling quark coefficients and laboratory observations of nuclear particles. The large negative temperatures are later interpreted to mean robust stability.
By the foregoing definition, the temperature of these particles is given by
The Temperature of Compound Quarks
Consider that each each orbital cycle of P may also be described as a bundle of quarks
And let seeds be paired in sequence such that . Then the temperature, as defined above, can be changed from a sum over seeds to a sum over quarks
If P happens to be a solitary quark then the number seeds is just and so
Substituting this back into the general expression for P’s temperature gives
But because there are two seeds in every quark. So finally
The temperature of a compound quark is just the average temperature of its component quarks. Swapping ordinary quarks with anti-quarks cannot change this average because . Thus any particle has the same temperature as its associated anti-particle