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Photon Definitions

a spectrum-like image used as an icon for photons

Let particle P be characterized by some repetitive chain of events written as

\Psi^{\mathsf{P}} = \left( \mathsf{\Omega}_{1}, \, \mathsf{\Omega}_{2}, \, \mathsf{\Omega}_{3} \; \ldots  \;       \right)

where each repeated cycle is a bundle of quarks

\mathsf{\Omega}^{\mathsf{P}} = \left( \mathsf{q}_{1}, \, \mathsf{q}_{2},  \;   \ldots   \; \mathsf{q}_{N}     \right)

and each quark is described by its phase  \delta_{\theta}. Use this phase to sort quarks into a pair of sets, \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} and \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}, so that all quarks of the same phase are in the same set. Then \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} and \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}} are called phase components of P, and they are out of phase with each other. We write

\mathsf{\Omega}^{\mathsf{P}} = \left\{ \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}}, \, \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}} \rule{0px}{9px} \right\}


\delta_{\theta} \left( \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} \right) = - \, \delta_{\theta} \left( \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}} \right)

Now let P be an almost perfectly phase anti-symmetric particle so that \mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\circ}} = \overline{\mathcal{A}_{\LARGE{\bullet}}} for all types of quarks, except perhaps down quarks. Then we define a photon \boldsymbol{\gamma} as a particle like P, that also satisfies the conditions

N^{\mathsf{D}}  =  N^{\mathsf{U}} \! \pm 8


\left| {\Delta}n^{\mathsf{Z}}  \rule{0px}{10px} \right|  = \begin{cases}   \ \  0		\   &\mathsf{\text{if}} \      {\mathsf{Z \ne D}}          	\\ \; \ge 8     \   &\mathsf{\text{if}} \   {\mathsf{Z = D}}    \end{cases}

These constrain the angular momentum \textsl{\textsf{J}} and the inner radius  \rho_{in} so that, for all photons

\textsl{\textsf{J}} \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) = 1


\rho_{in} \! \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) \ge       \sqrt{ \dfrac{hc}{2\pi k_{\mathsf{F}}} \rule{0px}{17px} }

Notice that solitary photons are excluded from particle cores. So under some conditions, we may be able to say that \boldsymbol{\gamma} is a free particle.


For EthnoPhysics anti-photons are just like other anti-particles. So \overline{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} is defined from \boldsymbol{\gamma} by exchanging ordinary-quarks with anti-quarks of the same type, while leaving the phase and other relationships unchanged. In a photon,  \Delta n = 0 for all quarks except down-quarks. So photons and anti-photons have just about the same characteristics as each other

\textsl{\textsf{J}} \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) =  \textsl{\textsf{J}} \left( \overline{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \right)


\rho_{in} \! \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) = \rho_{in} \! \left( \overline{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} \right)

But  \Delta n^{\mathsf{D}} \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) = - \Delta n^{\mathsf{D}} \left( \overline{ \boldsymbol{\gamma}} \right). And photons also have relative characteristics which may differ between \overline{\boldsymbol{\gamma}} and \boldsymbol{\gamma} depending on their juxtaposition with a frame of reference. For example, the wavevector \overline{\kappa} depends on the phase so that

\overline{\kappa} \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right)  = - \, \overline{\kappa}  \left( \overline{ \boldsymbol{\gamma}}  \right)

and the two photons have symmetrically opposed wavevectors. So photons and anti-photons are mostly the same as each other, but moving in opposite directions. Next we consider some other types of photons.

Photons have almost perfect phase anti-symmetry, somewhat like this bead panel from Indonesia.
Baby Carrier panel, Ngaju people. Borneo 20th century, 33 x 26 cm. Photograph by D Dunlop.