Swapping quarks with anti-quarks does not change thermodynamic seed counts, so and . Then the seed coefficients of the graviton are given by
Using these values, the angular momentum quantum number of a graviton is found as
But by definition the angular momentum quantum number of any photon is one. So for all gravitons
Gravitons are defined by the union of a photon with its matching anti-photon. So the net number of any sort of quark in a graviton is zero. This specifically includes down quarks. Photons have mismatched quantities of down-quarks and down anti-quarks. But for gravitons, these imbalances cancel each other perfectly so that for all types of quarks. Substituting these conditions into the definitions for charge, strangeness, lepton number, baryon number and enthalpy gives
The Location of a Graviton
When some particle P absorbs a graviton, we say that the graviton is located at P’s center of gravity. To be more exact, let us assess the radius vector for a graviton. Recall that is defined from sums of quark coefficients, and quarks are conserved. So
But as discussed earlier, any particle and its anti-particle have symmetrically opposed radius vectors, so
Thus the graviton is located at the origin of a quark space that is centered on P. So we say that the center of gravity is at the center of P. And since for all types of quarks, including down-quarks, the inner radius of any graviton is nil
An inner radius of zero means the graviton can be in P’s core. So overall, the center-of-gravity, the center-of-P and the core-of-P are all understood to be in the same location.
Since no work is required to assemble the quarks in a graviton
This result is combined with the null value for the enthalpy to find the mass of a graviton as
So gravitons have no mass, they are ethereal. And as for their motion, recall that the wavevector is defined from sums of quark coefficients, and quarks are conserved. So the wavevector of a graviton is the sum of the wavevectors of its component photons. But the wavevector of any particle is symmetrically opposed to the wavevector of its matching anti-particle. Thus
where is the total number of quarks in , including all types. This expression shows that all of the gravitons in a description have their momenta pointed in the same direction, and this direction is determined by the character of the reference frame. Overall, gravitons are certainly “not like rain”1J.N. Patterson Hume, On Beyond Darwin, page166, 1983.. They have no mass, there is no ‘drag’. And their momenta are uniform. So gravity, the force they carry, is uniformly directed too. The foregoing results can be substituted into the definition of mechanical energy to obtain
So in a perfectly inertial reference frame where gravitons carry no energy or momentum. If we assume that a frame is perfectly inertial, then we can ignore gravity. For non-inertial frames, both the momentum and energy of a graviton are directly proportional to the total number of quarks it contains.
Examples of Gravitons
For additional detail about these calculations, please see the Field Quanta spreadsheet. There is a lot more to be said about gravitons and gravity, but next we shift to a discussion of nuclear particles.