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X-Rays

a spectrum-like image used as an icon for photons

The following quark-models of X-rays use only rotating and electrochemical quarks. These sorts of arrangements are called atomic X-ray models. It is also possible to model X-rays using leptonic quarks, but we reserve that design for the X-rays coming from nuclear-decay. Atomic X-rays are different. They are typically produced by bombarding some metallic atom  A, with electrons that have been accelerated to high speeds by absorbing vast quantities of photons containing electrochemical quarks. So the total number of quarks used for these models is not constrained, and  N rises into the thousands.

Atomic X-rays have distinct peaks in their observed energies. This phenomenon is linked to a few specific combinations of rotating quarks. Like other photons, the distribution of rotating quarks is described by the principal quantum number  \mathrm{n}, and the total angular momentum quantum number  \textsl{\textsf{J}}, as expressed using the spectroscopic notation for X-rays. These quantities are reviewed in the table below. The wavelength of an X-ray has been established as

\lambda_{\mathsf{o}} = \dfrac{hc}{\rule{0px}{11px} \,2 W^{\mathcal{A}} }

where  W notes the work required to build  \mathcal{A}, a phase component of the X-ray. The wavelength is related to the X-ray’s energy by

E \! \left( \boldsymbol{\gamma} \right) = \dfrac{hc}{\lambda_{\mathsf{o}}} = 2W^{\mathcal{A}}

This relationship can be used to calculate the photon energies directly from quark-coefficients. And so here are some quark-models for the X-rays obtained by bombarding zinc, copper, iron and calcium. They are demonstrative, rather than definitive. The very close agreement with observed1R.D. Deslattes, E.G. Kessler Jr., P. Indelicato, L. de Billy, E. Lindroth, J. Anton, J.S. Coursey, D.J. Schwab, C. Chang, R. Sukumar, K. Olsen, and R.A. Dragoset (2005), X-ray Transition Energies Database (version 1.2). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. values is easy to obtain because the total number of quarks is so large. Many similar models with slightly different numbers of electrochemical quarks also fit within the limits of observation.

X-rays produced by bombardment of zinc, copper, iron and calcium are shown in this list.

These X-ray models could be improved by making some additional requirement for equilibrium. Then electrochemical quark distributions could be further constrained and explained. For more detail about these calculations, please see the X-rays spreadsheet. Next we consider photons that are paired with their corresponding anti-photon. They are called gravitons.

X-rays produced by bombardment are suggested by this dazzling, star-spangled weaving from China.
Baby Collar (detail), Dong people. China, Yunnan province, 20th century 33 x 15 cm. From the collection of Tan Tim Qing, Kunming. Photograph by D Dunlop
References
1R.D. Deslattes, E.G. Kessler Jr., P. Indelicato, L. de Billy, E. Lindroth, J. Anton, J.S. Coursey, D.J. Schwab, C. Chang, R. Sukumar, K. Olsen, and R.A. Dragoset (2005), X-ray Transition Energies Database (version 1.2). National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.