EthnoPhysics describes the proton by starting with an archetypal chain of events written as
where each repeated cycle is a bundle of 24 Anaxagorean sensations. The chain of events is generically called a history of the proton. To be exact the prototypical sensations are; eight somatic perceptions on the right-side, four on the left, four burning thermal feelings, four freezing, and finally four black visual sensations. Each Anaxagorean sensation may be objectified to define a seed. And Aristotle refers to the primordial atomic mass1Aristotle, Physics 203 a 21, De Caelo 303 a 16, and De Anima 404 a 4. as πανσπερμία or a seed-aggregate. So to make a seed-aggregate model for the proton we express as a bundle of seeds
A Quark Model of the Proton
Quarks are defined by pairs of seeds. So the seed-aggregate model of the proton is further developed by associating seeds in pairs to form the following quarks
Thus a proton is represented by a bundle of twelve quarks. Here is a mathematical way of expressing the arrangement, along with an iconic image for the model.
Using these quarks, the mass of the proton is calculated to be 938.2720460 (MeV/c2). This is exactly the same as the experimentally observed value because adjustable parameters like quark energies have been carefully chosen2The mass of the proton can be written in terms of the work, enthalpy and quark coefficients. The resulting equation can be solved to find the internal-energy of top-quarks as . This relationship between top and bottom quarks is then used to constrain the selection of other adjustable parameters. to get this result. For more detail, please see the Nuclear Particles spreadsheet.
A Ground-State Proton Model
In the foregoing model, quark coefficients are all integer multiples of two, and so the image is drawn with the back row of quarks the same as the front row. But we cannot have two identical quarks in the same bundle and still satisfy Pauli’s exclusion principle. So the quark model is developed further with an additional requirement that the quarks in the front and back rows are out of phase with each other. That is, they are distinguished by the helicity of their reference frames as noted by or . This satisfies the definition for being in a ground-state and so the new arrangement is called a ground-state model of the proton. It is expressed mathematically as
To illustrate this model, we show quarks with a background that is dark or bright depending on their phase. Then the image above can be made into a movie that uses shadows, horizons and background brightness to suggest a quark’s relationship with the frame-of-reference.
This is within experimental uncertainty of the observed3Fixsen, D. J., Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background, The Astrophysical Journal 707 (2): 916–920 (2009). value of 2.72548 ± 0.00057 (K) for the thermal black body spectrum of the microwave background radiation. It is common to describe this background radiation as ‘cosmic’ and to assert that it comes from a ‘big-bang’. But seeing protons, bare naked in their ground-states, could offer another explanation. The proton temperature corresponds to a calculated mean life of 1.71 X 1055 seconds, which is consistent with the observed4K.A. Olive et al. Particle Data Group Review of Particle Physics, Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014). lower bound of 6.6 X 1036 seconds. So the proton is an extremely stable particle. This gives it a starring role in narratives connecting cause and effect. Next we look at families of nuclear particles.
|1||Aristotle, Physics 203 a 21, De Caelo 303 a 16, and De Anima 404 a 4.|
|2||The mass of the proton can be written in terms of the work, enthalpy and quark coefficients. The resulting equation can be solved to find the internal-energy of top-quarks as . This relationship between top and bottom quarks is then used to constrain the selection of other adjustable parameters.|
|3||Fixsen, D. J., Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background, The Astrophysical Journal 707 (2): 916–920 (2009).|
|4||K.A. Olive et al. Particle Data Group Review of Particle Physics, Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014).|