Outline

- Enthalpy
- Radii
- Quark Space
- Metrics
- The Norm
- Spatial Orientation
- Angular Momentum
- Charge Symmetry
- Work

To summarize, so far we have defined the elementary particles of EthnoPhysics by objectifying some common sensations as seeds. Then we considered pairs of seeds and called them quarks. We talked about how quarks are counted and conserved. And we characterized them by their internal energy and temperature.

Over the next few articles EthnoPhysics makes models of observable particles from collections of these quarks. Everything from photons, nuclei and atoms, to clocks and even reference-frames are introduced as compound quarks. We focus on models that are minimalist, intuitive and specifically designed for ease of use: Ergonomic quark models.

On this page we look at the size and shape of a quark model. This leads to a discussion of *radii*, *metrics* and more generally to *quark-space* as a venue for the presentation and analysis of quark models. The spatial orientation of a model is defined. And related spatial concepts like angular momentum and charge symmetry are considered.

The discussion of shape ultimately leads to a definition of the *work* required to construct a quark model. But before all that, we start with a more collective notion of size, the *enthalpy*.

## Enthalpy

Enthalpy represents the net difference in size between sensations felt on the left side versus the right side. The comparison may be considered over various classes of sensation. To be more specific, let a quark model of particle P be characterized by its quark coefficients and their associated internal energies . Recall that is an index that notes quark-type. The **enthalpy** of P is defined as

We also make use of a partial sum over just the chemical quarks that is written as

Enthalpy is conserved when compound quarks are formed or decomposed because it is defined by sums over quarks, and quarks are conserved.

The assumption of conjugate symmetry requires that the internal energy of ordinary-quarks and anti-quarks are the same as each other. We write . Also, the net number of quarks , in particle and its anti-particle , are related by

So the enthalpy for a quark model of a particle and its anti-particle are related as

The internal energy is defined from the specific energy of a particle. This specific energy represents the size of a perception. And quarks are objectified from thermal, visual, somatic and taste sensations. So a sensory interpretation of enthalpy is an awareness of size for all these kinds of sensations, net left-side from right.

Next we use this notion of size to define the *radius* of a composite quark.

## Radii

Radii and radius vectors are used to express spatial concepts like *extension* and *containment*. For example, consider a quark model of particle P that is characterized by some repetitive chain of events

where each orbital cycle is a bundle of quarks

that are described by their quark coefficients and internal energies Recall that notes the enthalpy of the chemical quarks in P. And let a constant have a positive value, with units of a force. These quantities are used to describe the shape and extent of P as follows. The **chemical radius** is

The **magnetic radius** of P is

the **electric radius** is defined by

and the **polar radius** of P is given as

An ordered set of these radii defines the **radius vector** for a quark model of P as

The three components of are conserved because they are defined from sums of quark coefficients, and quarks are conserved. So if some generic particles , and interact like then by the associative properties of addition, radii are related as

Also and . So particles and anti-particles have symmetrically opposed radius vectors

Going forward, we use these radius-vectors to develop a description for the *shape* of a quark model. As a starting example; if P has the same radius vector for every cycle, then we call it a **rigid** particle.

Some particles are not very solid or exactly located. Then an analysis of shape might not provide a useful description. So instead we may use the following radii to describe their *containment* or *range*. The **inner radius** is defined as

And the **outer radius** of P is

We say that a particle is **free** when and That is, when the inner radius is small and the outer radius is big. But if then we say that P is located at the **core** of a quark model.

Here is a sensory explanation of the radius vector. In these formulae means that contributions from sensations on the right side are cancelled by sensations felt on the left. The radius vector depends on their *net* size. Coefficients of baryonic quarks do not appear in these definitions, only dynamic quarks. So the radius vector does not depend on thermal sensation, only somatic and visual sensations.

Also the null value for energy is referred to down-quarks which are objectified from black sensations. So overall, the radius vector is interpreted as a description of size for visual sensations, relative to black sensations, net right from left.

## Quark Space

EthnoPhysics begins with the premise that we can understand ordinary space by describing sensation. And, we also need some room to build quark models. So let’s start by defining an algebraic vector space made from the radius vectors for some finite collection of particles . This mathematical construction is generically written as

Radius vectors are defined by describing sense perceptions, so ultimately is defined by sensation too. We say is three-dimensional because the three components of a radius vector represent three distinct classes of sensation which may change independently of each other.

These three components are not the Cartesian coordinates that we usually use in geometry because instead of being associated with lengths, they are defined by counting quarks. Moreover, this space is explicitly constructed to keep track of quark models, so is called a **quark space**.

The following basis vectors are used to make general descriptions; the **magnetic axis** is defined by the **electric axis** from and the **polar axis** by . Then, any radius vector in can be expressed in terms of its components as The *norm* of a radius vector in quark space is given by

This function compresses all three components of a radius vector into a single quantity that depends on six constant numbers noted by These constants are known collectively as the *terrestrial metric* and they are discussed in detail later.

Particles and anti-particles have symmetrically opposed radius vectors, . So their norms are the same as each other

Quark space is coarse and grainy because quark coefficients are always integers. And is squashed in a funny way because metric components are not Euclidean. These tangled details are handled mathematically, and in the following articles we make idealized quark models using conventional graphics. But first we say a bit more about *metrics* and *norm*s.

## Metrics

WikiMechanics begins with the premise that we can understand ordinary space by describing sensation. This is done by objectifying reference sensations as quarks and then considering spaces as collections of quarks. Different kinds of space are defined from different distributions of quark types. And empty space is not defined. So overall, our understanding of a space is based on the particles that are in the space.

Specifically, we assess the shape or radii of quark models. Traditionally, a radius is quantified by making a measurement of length. But a full discussion of length requires some ideas that are initially quite vague.

So to begin, we evaluate the shape of a quark model by counting its quarks. Then we define , a radius vector, from quark inventories. Using this vector, an algebraic vector space called , can be defined for some finite collection of particles . Such a mathematical construction is generically written as

is characterized using a statistical account of commonalities and variation in the shape of quark models for these particles. Averages and standard deviations are given by

where notes different components of the radius vector . Spaces are also described by correlations between these components using the coefficients

where . Correlation coefficients may be combined to define some ratios, which are then used to systematically characterize . For the important special case where is the Earth, we have the *terrestrial* metric.

### The Terrestrial Metric

Recall that touching the Earth is a reference sensation for EthnoPhysics. So we presume that the Earth is implicitly part of every description. And since this celestial body is so big, the law of large numbers implies that correlation coefficients will have specific values that do not vary on geological time scales. So we can define five unique constants by

The Terrestrial Metric | ||
---|---|---|

centripetal component | 1 | |

electric component | -0.0152286648 | |

magnetic component | +0.7453740340 | |

electromagnetic component | -0.9292374609 | |

electroweak component | +1.5428187522 | |

magnetoweak component | -1.2742065050 |

and use them to determine the norm of a radius vector. Note that by this definition is exactly one, and A set of numbers used to calculate a norm is called a *metric*, so we call this collection the **terrestrial metric**. Using it compresses a radius vector into a single quantity that depends on attributes of the Earth.

The labels given to components of the terrestrial metric are arbitrary, but the names listed in the table above have been chosen for their mnemonic value. They will smoothly fit into our traditional ways of discussing physics and be easy to remember. Later we use them to understand the forces involved when constructing quark models.

### The Euclidean Metric

The Euclidean Metric | |
---|---|

We also consider that may be a collection of quark models where membership in the set is restricted to certain shapes or other attributes. Then a statistical analysis of shape could yield a different metric.

For example, in our laboratories we usually assume that space is filled with room-temperature atoms, not just any composite quark. An extended analysis of this sort of terrestrial space is detailed later. But the overall result is easily summarized as the *Euclidean* metric shown in the accompanying table.

## The Norm

Consider an ordered-set of three numbers , and that constitute an algebraic vector written as . These numbers can be compressed into a single number called the *norm* *of* which is written as .

Evaluating the norm depends on several more numbers that are called components of a metric. The numerical values of these metric components are established by the context of a calculation, they are often implicit.

A complete mathematical discussion of metrics and norms can be quite extended, so for EthnoPhysics we focus on the specific case where and are the three radii used to describe the shape of a quark model. These radii are determined by counting quarks, so to assess their norm we use components of the terrestrial metric, written as . First we define a directed **surface** **area** by

In general, radii may be positive or negative, so may be positive or negative too. If we say that the surface of P is **outside** facing. And if , then the surface is facing **inside**. The **norm** of is defined as

This number may be imaginary if P’s surface is facing inward. Note that particles and anti-particles have opposing radius vectors, . And all radial components appear as paired factors in the expression for . So both vectors have the same norm, and we write

Here is similar way to distill two radius vectors into a single number. Let us call the vectors and . Then the **inner product** is defined by

We say that and are **orthogonal** if .

## Spatial Orientation

The following quantities are defined from just the dynamic seeds in a quark model. They establish an orientation in quark space and are also used to describe displacements in ordinary space.

### Magnetic Polarity

Let a quark model for some particle P be characterized by and the coefficients of its muonic seeds. These quantities are used to define another number called the **magnetic polarity** of P as

If then northern seeds are more numerous than southern seeds and we say that P is oriented to the north. If P is part of a magnet, we might even call it a north *pole*. If southern seeds predominate then we say that P is directed to the south, or perhaps aligned in a southerly direction. And if then we say that P is not magnetically polarized.

Sensory interpretation: Muonic seeds are objectified from red and green sensations. So is a binary description of whether a complicated visual sensation is more reddish or greenish. If then P is not remarkably red or green.

### Electric Polarity

Let a quark model of P also be characterized by and the coefficients of its electronic seeds. These numbers are used to define another quantity called the **electric polarity** of P as

If then positive seeds are more numerous than negative seeds and we say that P is positive too. If P is part of a battery, we might even call it a positive *electrode*. If negative seeds predominate then we may say that P is oriented or aligned in a negative direction. If then P is not electrically polarized. And, if both of and are zero, then we say that P is **centered** on the electric and magnetic axes.

Sensory interpretation: Electronic seeds are objectified from yellow and blue sensations. So is a binary description of whether a complex visual sensation is more yellowish or bluish. If P is not clearly yellowish or bluish, then . And if both of and are zero, then P is a colorless or achromatic sensation.

### Helicity

Finally, let a quark model of P be characterized by and the coefficients of its rotating seeds. These numbers are used to define as the **helicity** of P

If then we say that P is a spin-up particle. Conversely, if then P is called a spin-down particle. And if then we say that P is not rotating. Sensory interpretation: Rotating quarks are objectified from achromatic visual sensations. So is a binary description of whether a complicated greyish vision is overall a light grey or a dark grey.

## Angular Momentum

Spin | Helicity | Seeds |
---|---|---|

spin-up | ||

non-rotating | ||

spin-down |

Consider a quark model of P, that is described by the coefficients of its rotating seeds and . We say that P has a **spin** that is defined by these coefficients, as noted in the accompanying table.

We also use the helicity to make quantitative descriptions of P’s spatial orientation. And later, if P is also being used as a frame of reference, then and may be used to establish the phase of other particles. So rotating seeds have an important role in describing motion.

This task is expanded by considering the coefficients of the leptonic seeds , , and to define

where is the electric polarity and is the magnetic polarity. Then we specify the **total angular momentum vector** as . Exchanging quarks for anti-quarks does not alter seed counts, so

In general, the components , and have non-zero values, and P’s motion is complicated. But for a quark model that is not electrically or magnetically polarized we may construct a framework where P is centered on the electric and magnetic axes. Then it is easy to assess the norm of because and . The vector is aligned with the polar-axis, and so

This expression can be simplified because the total angular momentum quantum number is defined by

### Conservation of Angular Momentum

If then the -component of the angular momentum vector can be expressed in terms of as

And if then the radical is approximately one, and

Similar results obtain for the other axes so that

But seeds are conserved, so the quantity and character of the seeds in a description cannot change. Whenever some generic compound quarks , and interact, if then the coefficients for any sort of seed Z are related as

Then by the associative properties of addition, the angular momentum must be approximately conserved too. For quark models of macroscopic particles, is huge because is so small, and the approximation is excellent.

Sensory interpretation: Rotating seeds are objectified from achromatic visual sensations. So for quark models of spin-up particles, white sensations outnumber black sensations. Collectively they are *bright*. For spin-down particles, black sensations are more numerous than white sensations, they look *dark*. Quark models of non-rotating particles are in between, they are greyish. So indicates if a complex achromatic visual sensation is brighter or darker than some medium grey visual experience. And notes the size of the difference.

## Charge Symmetry

Let some quark model for particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle can be parsed into two sets

that have opposite magnetic polarities

Then and are called the northern and southern components of P. When these two components have the same charge then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The magnetic polarity is used to specify direction on the magnetic axis. So for quark models of P, the charge distribution along the magnetic axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between north and south. This indifference is useful, so if

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry** on the magnetic-axis. See the quark model of atomic hydrogen for an example of this kind of symmetry.

Sensory interpretation: Magnetic polarity can be interpreted as a description of if a visual sensation is more reddish or greenish. So for quark models with charge-symmetry on the magnetic-axis, the charge distribution does not depend on how the model is objectified from red and green sensations. This symmetry relieves us from having to pay very much attention to whether a sensation is red or green.

Alternatively, let P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle can be parsed into two sets

that have opposite electric polarities

Then and are called the positive and negative components of P. When these two components have the same charge then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The electric polarity is used to specify direction on the electric axis. So for quark models of P, the charge distribution along the electric axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between positive and negative components. This indifference is useful, so if

then we say that P has charge-symmetry on the electric-axis. See this quark model of an electron for an example of electric-axis charge-symmetry.

Sensory interpretation: Electric polarity can be understood as a binary description of if a complex visual sensation is more yellowish or blueish. So for a quark model with charge-symmetry on the electric-axis, the charge distribution does not depend on how the model is objectified from yellow and blue sensations. This symmetry relieves us from having to pay very much attention to whether a sensation is yellow or blue.

## Work

Consider a quark model of P that is characterized by some repetitive chain of events where each orbital cycle is a bundle of quarks written as Let these quarks be assembled into a model of P. The **work** required to bring these quarks together to build the model is defined as

where is the norm of the radius vector of P. We consider that might be an imaginary number because the norm may be imaginary under some circumstances. Recall that the constant was introduced earlier to relate the internal energy of quarks to their radii. So is just another, slightly different representation for the internal energy of the quarks in P.

Models of particles and anti-particles have opposing radius vectors, that is, But they both have the same norm. So the work required to assemble the quark model of any particle is the same as the work done to build a model of its corresponding anti-particle

If extra quarks are absorbed or emitted by P, then is replaced by a new bundle and changes to The quantity may be used to describe the change. Particle radii may also vary, and then we say that the interaction has done work on the particle by changing its shape.

The norm can be written as

where the constants are components of the terrestrial metric, and are components of P’s radius vector. So the square of the work can be written as

And since we explicitly consider that the work may be imaginary, then may be negative. The foregoing expression is key for calculating the mass of P. And experimental observations of mass are possibly *the* most important data for understanding the mechanics of particles. So we will refer back to the work, but next we discuss Clocks.