Outline

To summarize, so far we have defined the elementary particles of EthnoPhysics by objectifying some common sensations as seeds. Then we considered pairs of seeds and called them quarks. We talked about how quarks are counted and conserved. And we characterized them by their internal energy and temperature.

Over the next few articles EthnoPhysics makes models of larger particles from collections of these quarks. Everything from photons, nuclei and atoms, to clocks and even reference-frames are introduced as compound quarks. We focus on models that are minimalist, intuitive and specifically designed for ease of use: Ergonomic quark models.

On this page we look at the size and shape of a compound quark. This leads to a discussion of *radii*, *metrics* and more generally to *quark-space* as a venue for the presentation and analysis of quark models. The spatial orientation is defined. And related spatial concepts like angular momentum and charge symmetry are considered.

The discussion of shape ultimately leads to a definition of the *work* required to assemble a compound quark. But before all that, we start with a more differential notion of size, the *enthalpy*.

## Enthalpy

Enthalpy represents the net difference in size between sensations felt on the left side versus the right side. The comparison may be considered over various classes of sensation. To be more specific, let a quark model of particle P be characterized by its quark coefficients and their associated internal energies . Recall that is an index that notes quark-type. The **enthalpy** of P is defined as

We also make use of a partial sum over just the chemical quarks that is written as

Enthalpy is conserved when compound quarks are formed or decomposed because it is defined by sums over quarks, and quarks are conserved.

The assumption of conjugate symmetry requires that the internal energy of ordinary-quarks and anti-quarks are the same as each other. Also, the net number of quarks , in particle and its anti-particle , are related by

So the enthalpy for a quark model of a particle and its anti-particle are related as

The internal energy is defined from the specific energy of a particle. This specific energy represents the size of a perception. And quarks are objectified from thermal, visual, somatic and taste sensations. So a sensory interpretation of enthalpy is an awareness of size for all these kinds of sensations, net left-side from right. Next we use this notion of size to define the *radius* of a composite quark.

## Radii

Radii and radius-vectors are used to express spatial concepts like *extension* and *containment*. For example, consider a quark model of particle P that is characterized by some repetitive chain of events

where each orbital cycle is a bundle of quarks

that are described by their quark coefficients and internal energies Recall that notes the enthalpy of the chemical quarks in P. And let a constant have a positive value, with units of a force. These quantities are used to describe the shape and extent of P as follows.

The **core radius** of particle P is given by

The **magnetic radius** of P is

the **electric radius** is defined by

and the **polar radius** of P is given as

An ordered set of these radii defines the **radius vector** for a quark model of P as

The three components of are conserved because they are defined from sums of quark coefficients, and quarks are conserved. So if some generic particles , and interact like then by the associative properties of addition, radii are related as

Also and . So particles and anti-particles have symmetrically opposed radius vectors

Going forward, we use these radius-vectors to develop a description for the *shape* of a compound quark. As a starting example; if P has the same radii every cycle, then we call it a **rigid** particle.

Some particles are not very solid or exactly located. Then an analysis of shape might not provide a useful description. So instead we may use the following radii to describe their *containment* or *range*. The **inner radius** is defined as

And the **outer radius** of P is

We say that a particle is **free** when and That is, when the inner radius is smallish and the outer radius is huge. But if then P is not free.

Here is a sensory explanation of the radius vector. In these formulae means that contributions from sensations on the right side are cancelled by sensations felt on the left. The radius vector depends on their *net* size. Coefficients of baryonic quarks do not appear in these definitions, only dynamic quarks. So the radius vector does not depend on thermal sensation, only somatic and visual sensations.

Also the null value for energy is referred to down-quarks which are objectified from black sensations. So overall, the radius vector is interpreted as a description of size for visual sensations, relative to black sensations, net right from left.

## Quark Space

EthnoPhysics begins with the premise that we can understand the ordinary everyday space of our classrooms and laboratories by describing sensation. And, we also need some room to build quark models. So let’s start by defining an algebraic vector space made from the radius vectors of some finite collection of particles . This mathematical construction is generically written as

Radius vectors are defined by describing sense perceptions, so ultimately is defined by sensation as well.

We say that is a *three-dimensional *space because radius vectors have three distinct components. And these components are distinct because they are defined from three different classes of sensation which may vary independently of each other.

The components of are not Cartesian coordinates because they are defined by counting quarks. And also is expressly constructed to illustrate quark arrangements. So the vector-space is called a **quark space**.

The following basis vectors are used to make general descriptions; the **magnetic axis** is established as the **electric axis** from and the **polar axis** by . Then, any vector in can be expressed in terms of its components , and as

Quark space is grainy because quark coefficients are always integers. And is not exactly rectilinear. But these messy details are handled mathematically and in the following articles we make idealized quark models using conventional graphics. Next, a bit more about *metrics*.

## Metrics

EthnoPhysics begins with the premise that we can understand ordinary space by describing sensation. This is done by objectifying reference sensations as quarks and then considering spaces to be mathematical sets of quarks. Different kinds of space are defined from different distributions of quark types. And empty space is not defined. So overall, our understanding of a space is based on the particles that are in the space. Specifically, we assess the shape or radii of these particles.

Traditionally, a radius is quantified by making a measurement of length. But a full discussion of length requires some ideas that are initially quite vague. So to begin, we define a radius vector from quark inventories. Using this vector, a quark space is defined for some finite collection of particles This space is generically written as

is then characterized using a statistical account of commonalities and variation in the shape of these particles. Shape is described by the radius vector So a generic radial component is written as where The arithmetic mean of taken over all the particles in is noted by

The standard deviation of the variation in is

And the covariance between pairs of radial components is given by

where Next we use these descriptive statistics to specify *metrics* for various quark spaces.

### The Quark Metric

A quark metric is a set of six numbers that are later used to express notions about *distance* or *separation* in a quark space. They are constants, so we note them using the letter with two subscripts. For a generic quark-space , a generic quark-metric is defined by

These numbers are symmetric such that And they are scaled relative to variations in the polar radius. So there are no units, and is always equal to one.

### The Terrestrial Metric

For the important special case where every quark on planet Earth is included in we identify the *terrestrial* metric. Recall that touching the Earth is a reference sensation for EthnoPhysics. So we presume that the Earth is implicitly part of every description. Moreover, the Earth is very large and stable. So we assume that the law of large numbers guarantees that sensory covariances have fixed values that do not change over geological time-scales. Thus a unique metric can be specified by

The Terrestrial Metric | ||
---|---|---|

centripetal component | 1 | |

electric component | -0.0152286648 | |

magnetic component | +0.7453740340 | |

electromagnetic component | -0.9292374609 | |

electroweak component | +1.5428187522 | |

magnetoweak component | -1.2742065050 |

The numbers shown in the accompanying table are called the **terrestrial metric**. The labels given to components can be arbitrary, but the names shown in the table have been carefully chosen for their mnemonic value. They will smoothly fit into our traditional ways of discussing physics and be easy to remember.

### The Euclidean Metric

The Euclidean Metric | |
---|---|

We also consider the possibility that a space may be defined from some set of particles that is restricted to certain shapes or other attributes. Then a statistical analysis could yield a different metric for For example, in our classrooms and laboratories we usually assume that space is filled with room-temperature atoms, not just any composite quark. An extended analysis of this sort of space is detailed later. But the overall result is easily summarized as the *Euclidean* *Metric* shown in the accompanying table.

## The Norm

Consider an ordered-set of three numbers , and that constitute an algebraic vector written as . These numbers can be compressed into a single number called the *norm* of which is written as

Evaluating a norm depends on several supplementary numbers that are called metric components. These numbers are determined by the context of a calculation, they are often implicit. A full discussion of metrics and norms can be quite extended. So here we focus on the specific case where and are the three radii used to describe the shape of some compound quark P. The norm of P’s radius-vector is then found using the terrestrial metric which is written as . To assess we first define the **surface** **area** of particle P as

Then the the **norm** of is defined by

In general, radii may be positive or negative, so may be positive or negative too. If we say that the surface of P is facing **outside**. Conversely, if then P’s surface is facing **inside**. But the norm does not depend on these directions, just the modulus of the surface area. It can be written-out explicitly in terms of its components as

Recall that particles and anti-particles have opposing radius vectors such that . And note that all radial components appear as paired factors in the expression for . So sign changes get cancelled and both particles have the same surface area and norm. We can write

Here is a related way to distill two radius vectors into a single number. Let us call the vectors and . Then their **inner product** is defined by

We say that and are **orthogonal** to each other if . We also use inner product to define the **square of a vector** as Then the surface area of a particle can be stated as

## Spatial Orientation

Next we talk about *polarity* and *helicity*. These quantities are innate particle characteristics. They depend on quark content, not the reference frame. So we can use them to establish the orientation of a particle in quark space as follows.

### Magnetic Polarity

Let a quark model for some particle P be characterized by and the coefficients of its muonic seeds. These quantities are used to define another number called the **magnetic polarity** of P as

If then northern seeds are more numerous than southern seeds and we say that P is oriented to the north. If P is part of a magnet, we might even call it a north *pole*. If southern seeds predominate then we say that P is directed to the south, or perhaps aligned in a southerly direction. And if then we say that P is **magnetically polarized**.

Sensory interpretation: Muonic seeds are objectified from red and green sensations. So is a binary description of whether a complicated visual sensation is more reddish or greenish. If then P is not remarkably red or green.

### Electric Polarity

Let a quark model of P also be characterized by and the coefficients of its electronic seeds. These numbers are used to define another quantity called the **electric polarity** of P as

If then positive seeds are more numerous than negative seeds and we say that P is positive too. If P is part of a battery, we might even call it a positive *electrode*. If negative seeds predominate then we may say that P is oriented or aligned in a negative direction. And, if , then we say that P is **electrically polarized**.

Sensory interpretation: Electronic seeds are objectified from yellow and blue sensations. So is a binary description of whether a complex visual sensation is more yellowish or bluish. If P is not clearly yellowish or bluish, then . When both and are zero, then P represents a colorless or achromatic sensation.

If P is not electrically or magnetically polarized, it said to be **centered** around the polar axis.

### Helicity

Let a quark model of P be characterized by and the coefficients of its rotating seeds. These numbers are used to define , the **helicity** of P by

If then we say that P is a **spin-up** particle. Conversely, if then P is called a **spin-down** particle. And if then we say that P is not rotating. The helicity of a particle depends on the coefficients of its rotating seeds and So the spin also depends on these coefficients as shown in the accompanying table.

Spin | Helicity | Seeds |
---|---|---|

spin-up | ||

non-rotating | ||

spin-down |

If P is being used as a frame of reference then and also determine the phase of other particles. So these rotating seeds have an important role in describing motion.

Sensory interpretation: Rotating seeds are objectified from achromatic visual sensations. So for white sensations outnumber black sensations. Collectively they are bright. For black sensations are more numerous than white sensations, they look dark. Particles with are greyish. So indicates if a complex visual experience is overall brighter or darker than some dull grey sensation.

## Angular Momentum

The coefficients of dynamic seeds may be used to specify some angular momenta. Recall that is the electric polarity and is the magnetic polarity. We define

These three numbers are components of the **total angular momentum vector** which is written as Exchanging quarks for anti-quarks switches conjugate seeds but does not change dynamic seeds, so

In general, the components , and have non-zero values, and P’s motion is complicated. But for a particle that is not electrically or magnetically polarized we may construct a framework where P is centered around the polar axis. Then it is easy to assess the norm of because and The angular momentum vector is aligned with the polar-axis. We can write and so

This expression can be further simplified because the total angular momentum quantum number is given by

### The Handedness

Let a quark model of P be characterized by and the coefficients of its rotating seeds. And let be different from so that the angular-momentum quantum number is not zero. Then P is rotating and it has a well-defined angular momentum vector. Furthermore, let P also be described by and the coefficients of its stereochemical seeds. That is, marks the total number of levo quarks and notes the quantity of all dextro quarks in P. Then the particle’s rotation is characterized by its **handedness** which is written as and defined by

If then we say that the particle is **levorotatory**. That is, its rotation is turning with a left-handed disposition compared to the angular-momentum vector. But if then P is called **dextrorotatory** or right-handed. These rotational characteristics are later associated with geometric isomerism in chemical molecules.

For spacetime descriptions, the handedness of a rotating particle may be depicted using stripes on its angular-momentum vector, like a barber’s pole. But the stereochemical quarks are millions of times smaller than leptonic and baryonic quarks. So for simplicity, stripes and stereochemical-quarks are just not included in many illustrations. Then the handedness of a particle may be noted in extra text, or perhaps completely set aside as an implicit assumption.

### Conservation of Angular Momentum

If then the -component of the angular momentum vector can be expressed in terms of as

And if then the radical is approximately one, and

Similar results obtain for the other axes so that

But seeds are conserved, so the quantity and character of the seeds in a description cannot change. Whenever some generic compound quarks , and interact, if then the coefficients for any sort of seed Z are related as

Then by the associative properties of addition, the angular momentum must be approximately conserved too

For macroscopic particles, is huge because is so small, and the approximation is excellent.

## Charge Symmetry

Let some quark model for particle P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle can be parsed into two sets

that have opposite magnetic polarities

Then and are called the northern and southern components of P. When these two components have the same charge then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The magnetic polarity is used to specify direction on the magnetic axis. So for quark models of P, the charge distribution along the magnetic axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between north and south. This indifference is useful, so if

then we say that P has **charge-symmetry** on the magnetic-axis. See the quark model of atomic hydrogen for an example of this kind of symmetry.

Sensory interpretation: Magnetic polarity can be interpreted as a description of if a visual sensation is more reddish or greenish. So for quark models with charge-symmetry on the magnetic-axis, the charge distribution does not depend on how the model is objectified from red and green sensations. This symmetry relieves us from having to pay very much attention to whether a sensation is red or green.

Alternatively, let P be described by a chain of events where the quarks in each orbital cycle can be parsed into two sets

that have opposite electric polarities

Then and are called the positive and negative components of P. When these two components have the same charge then the outcome of any calculation using the charge is not affected by a change of polarity. The electric polarity is used to specify direction on the electric axis. So for quark models of P, the charge distribution along the electric axis is symmetric. Descriptions of phenomena associated with the charge of P are unaltered by any confusion or mix-up between positive and negative components. This indifference is useful, so if

then we say that P has charge-symmetry on the electric-axis. See this quark model of an electron for an example of electric-axis charge-symmetry.

Sensory interpretation: Electric polarity can be understood as a binary description of if a complex visual sensation is more yellowish or blueish. So for a quark model with charge-symmetry on the electric-axis, the charge distribution does not depend on how the model is objectified from yellow and blue sensations. This symmetry relieves us from having to pay very much attention to whether a sensation is yellow or blue.

## Work

Consider some particle P that is characterized by a repetitive chain of events where each orbital cycle is a bundle of quarks written as Let these quarks be brought together to form a quark-model of P. The **work** required to assemble the model is defined by

where is the surface area of P. We consider that might be an imaginary number because the surface area may be negative or facing inward under some circumstances. Recall that the constant was introduced earlier to relate the internal energy of quarks to their radii. So is just another, slightly different representation for the internal energy of the quarks in P.

Particles and anti-particles have opposing radius vectors, that is But they both have the same surface area. So the work required to assemble the quark model of any particle is the same as the work done to build its corresponding anti-particle

If extra quarks are absorbed or emitted by P, then is replaced by a new bundle and changes to The quantity may be used to describe the change. Particle radii may also vary, and then we say that the interaction has done work on P by changing its shape.

The square of the work can be written as

where the constants are components of the terrestrial metric. This expression is important for calculating the mass of P.